Independent Research

The body of scientific knowledge characterizing the positive bioeffects of ultrasound is rapidly accumulating. The following list is an overview of the relevant studies to date.

General Review of the Bioeffects of Ultrasound

Baker KG, Robertson VJ, Duck FA. A Review of Therapeutic Ultrasound: Biophysical. Effects. Phys Ther. 2001; 81:1351-1358. Link

Barnett SB, Ter Haar GR, Ziskin MC, Nyborg WL, Maeda K, Bang J. Current Status of Research on Biophysical Effects of Ultrasound. Ultrasound in Med. And Biol., Vol., 20, No. 3, pp. 205-218, 1994. Link

Robertson VJ, Baker KG. A Review of Therapeutic Ultrasound: Effectiveness Studies. Phys Ther. 2001; 81:1339-1350. Link

Increased Nerve Regeneration

Crisci AR, Ferreira AL. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates the regeneration of the sciatic nerve after neurotomy in rats.
Ultrasound Med Biol. 2002 Oct;28(10):1335-41 Link

Lazar DA, Curra FP, Mohr B, McNutt LD, Kliot M, Mourad PD. Acceleration of recovery after injury to the peripheral nervous system using ultrasound and other therapeutic modalities.
Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2001 Apr;12(2):353-7. Link

Paik NJ, Cho SH, Han TR. Ultrasound therapy facilitates the recovery of acute pressure-induced conduction block of the median nerve in rabbits. Muscle Nerve. 2002 Sep;26(3):356-61 Link

Mourad PD, Lazar DA, Curra FP, Mohr BC, Andrus KC, Avellino AM, McNutt LD, Crum LA, Kliot M. Ultrasound accelerates functional recovery after peripheral nerve damage.
Neurosurgery. 2001 May;48(5):1136-40; discussion 1140-1. Link

Metabolic Effects

Altland OD, Dalecki D, Suchkova VN, Francis CW. Low-intensity ultrasound increases endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide synthesis.
J Thromb Haemost. 2004 Apr;2(4):637-43. Link

Suchkova V, Siddiqi FN, Carstensen EL, Dalecki D, Child S, Francis CW. Enhancement of fibrinolysis with 40-kHz ultrasound.
Circulation. 1998 Sep 8;98(10):1030-5. Link

Increased Fracture Healing

Warden SJ, Favaloro JM, Bennell KL, McMeeken JM, Ng KW, Zajac JD, Wark JD. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates a bone-forming response in UMR-106 cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Aug 24;286(3):443-50. Link

Warden SJ. A new direction for ultrasound therapy in sports medicine.
Sports Med. 2003;33(2):95-107. Review. Link

Warden SJ, Bennell KL, McMeeken JM, Wark JD. Acceleration of fresh fracture repair using the sonic accelerated fracture healing system (SAFHS): a review. Calcif Tissue Int. 2000 Feb;66(2):157-63. Review. Link

Increased Collagen Repair

Da Cunha A, Parizotto NA, Vidal Bde C. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on repair of the achilles tendon (tendo calcaneus) of the rat.
Ultrasound Med Biol. 2001 Dec;27(12):1691-6. Link

Demir H, Yaray S, Kirnap M, Yaray K. Comparison of the effects of laser and ultrasound treatments on experimental wound healing in rats.
J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004 Sep;41(5):721-8. Link

Improved Resolution of Inflammation

Young SR, Dyson M. Macrophage responsiveness to therapeutic ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1990;16(8):809-16. Link

Increased Tissue Healing

Young SR, Dyson M. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound on the healing of full-thickness excised skin lesions. Ultrasonics. 1990 May;28(3):175-80. Link

Young SR, Dyson M. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on angiogenesis. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1990;16(3):261-9. Link

Increased Membrane Permeability

Dinno MA, Dyson M, Young SR, Mortimer AJ, Hart J, Crum LA. The significance of membrane changes in the safe and effective use of therapeutic and diagnostic ultrasound. Phys Med Biol. 1989 Nov;34(11):1543-52. Review. Link

Sundaram J, Mellein BR, Mitragotri S. An experimental and theoretical analysis of ultrasound-induced permeabilization of cell membranes. Biophys J. 2003 May;84(5):3087-101. Link

Accelerated Fibrinolysis

Harpaz D. Ultrasound enhancement of thrombolytic therapy: observations and mechanisms.
Int J Cardiovasc Intervent. 2000 Jun;3(2):81-89. Link

Harpaz D, Chen X, Francis CW, Meltzer RS. Ultrasound accelerates urokinase-induced thrombolysis and reperfusion. Am Heart J. 1994 May;127(5):1211-9. Link

Harpaz D, Chen X, Francis CW, Marder VJ, Meltzer RS. Ultrasound enhancement of thrombolysis and reperfusion in vitro. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 May;21(6):1507-11. Link

Increased Matrix/Collagen Synthesis

Webster DF, Harvery W, Dyson M, Pond JB. The role of ultrasound-induced cavitation in the 'in vitro' stimulation of collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts. Ultrasonics. 1980 Jan;18(1):33-7. Link

Webster DF, Pond JB, Dyson M, Harvey W. The role of cavitation in the in vitro stimulation of protein synthesis in human fibroblasts by ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1978;4(4):343-51. No abstract available. Link

Phonophoresis

Byl NN. The use of ultrasound as an enhancer for transcutaneous drug delivery: phonophoresis. Phys Ther. 1995 Jun;75(6):539-53. Review. Link

Byl NN, McKenzie A, Wond T, West J, Hunt TK. The effects of phonophoresis with corticosteroids: a controlled pilot study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1993 Nov;18(5):590-600. Link

Kozanoglu E, Basaran S, Guzel R, Guler-Uysal F. Short term efficacy of ibuprofen phonophoresis versus continuous ultrasound therapy in knee osteoarthritis. Swiss Med Wkly. 2003 Jun 14;133(23-24):333-8. Link

Tezel A, Paliwal S, Shen Z, Mitragotri S. Low-frequency ultrasound as a transcutaneous immunization adjuvant. Vaccine. 2005 May 31;23(29):3800-7. Epub 2005 Mar 16. Link

Mitragotri S. Healing sound: the use of ultrasound in drug delivery and other therapeutic applications. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005 Mar;4(3):255-60. Review. Link

Tezel A, Dokka S, Kelly S, Hardee GE, Mitragotri S. Topical delivery of anti-sense oligonucleotides using low-frequency sonophoresis. Pharm Res. 2004 Dec;21(12):2219-25. Link

Mitragotri S. Sonophoresis: a 50-year journey. Drug Discov Today. 2004 Sep 1;9(17):735-6. No abstract available. Link

Prausnitz MR, Mitragotri S, Langer R. Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004 Feb;3(2):115-24. Review. Link

Mitragotri S, Kost J. Low-frequency sonophoresis: a review. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2004 Mar 27;56(5):589-601. Review. Link

Tezel A, Sens A, Mitragotri S. Description of transdermal transport of hydrophilic solutes during low-frequency sonophoresis based on a modified porous pathway model. J Pharm Sci. 2003 Feb;92(2):381-93. Link

Tezel A, Sens A, Mitragotri S. A theoretical analysis of low-frequency sonophoresis: dependence of transdermal transport pathways on frequency and energy density. Pharm Res. 2002 Dec;19(12):1841-6. Link

Tezel A, Sens A, Tuchscherer J, Mitragotri S. Synergistic effect of low-frequency ultrasound and surfactants on skin permeability. J Pharm Sci. 2002 Jan;91(1):91-100. Link

Mitragotri S, Kost J. Transdermal delivery of heparin and low-molecular weight heparin using low-frequency ultrasound. Pharm Res. 2001 Aug;18(8):1151-6. Link

Tang H, Mitragotri S, Blankschtein D, Langer R. Theoretical description of transdermal transport of hydrophilic permeants: application to low-frequency sonophoresis. J Pharm Sci. 2001 May;90(5):545-68. Link

Mitragotri S. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound on partition and diffusion coefficients in human stratum corneum. J Control Release. 2001 Mar 12;71(1):23-9. Review. Link

Le L, Kost J, Mitragotri S. Combined effect of low-frequency ultrasound and iontophoresis: applications for transdermal heparin delivery. Pharm Res. 2000 Sep;17(9):1151-4. No abstract available. Link

Mitragotri S, Coleman M, Kost J, Langer R. Analysis of ultrasonically extracted interstitial fluid as a predictor of blood glucose levels. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Sep;89(3):961-6. Link

Mitragotri S, Coleman M, Kost J, Langer R. Transdermal extraction of analytes using low-frequency ultrasound. Pharm Res. 2000 Apr;17(4):466-70. Link

Mitragotri S, Kost J. Low-frequency sonophoresis: a noninvasive method of drug delivery and diagnostics. Biotechnol Prog. 2000 May-Jun;16(3):488-92. Link

Mitragotri S, Blankschtein D, Langer R. An explanation for the variation of the sonophoretic transdermal transport enhancement from drug to drug. J Pharm Sci. 1997 Oct;86(10):1190-2. Link

Mitragotri S, Blankschtein D, Langer R. Ultrasound-mediated transdermal protein delivery. Science. 1995 Aug 11;269(5225):850-3. Link

Mitragotri S, Edwards DA, Blankschtein D, Langer R. A mechanistic study of ultrasonically-enhanced transdermal drug delivery. J Pharm Sci. 1995 Jun;84(6):697-706. Link

Mitragotri S, Blankschtein D, Langer R. Transdermal drug delivery using low-frequency sonophoresis. Pharm Res. 1996 Mar;13(3):411-20. Link

Kost J, Pliquett U, Mitragotri S, Yamamoto A, Langer R, Weaver J. Synergistic effects of chemical enhancers and therapeutic ultrasound on transdermal drug delivery. J Pharm Sci. 1996 Jul;85(7):670-9. Link

Johnson ME, Mitragotri S, Patel A, Blankschtein D, Langer R. Synergistic effects of chemical enhancers and therapeutic ultrasound on transdermal drug delivery. J Pharm Sci. 1996 Jul;85(7):670-9. Link

Mitragotri S, Ray D, Farrell J, Tang H, Yu B, Kost J, Blankschtein D, Langer R. Synergistic effect of low-frequency ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on transdermal transport. J Pharm Sci. 2000 Jul;89(7):892-900. Link

Kost J, Mitragotri S, Gabbay RA, Pishko M, Langer R., Transdermal monitoring of glucose and other analytes using ultrasound. Nat Med. 2000 Mar;6(3):347-50. No abstract available. Link

Mitragotri S, Farrell J, Tang H, Terahara T, Kost J, Langer R. Determination of threshold energy dose for ultrasound-induced transdermal drug transport. J Control Release. 2000 Jan 3;63(1-2):41-52. Link

Tezel A, Sens A, Mitragotri S. Incorporation of lipophilic pathways into the porous pathway model for describing skin permeabilization during low-frequency sonophoresis. J Control Release. 2002 Sep 18;83(1):183-8. Link

Tezel A, Sens A, Tuchscherer J, Mitragotri S. Frequency dependence of sonophoresis. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1694-700. Link

Arthritis

Huang MH, Lin YS, Lee CL, Yang RC. Use of ultrasound to increase effectiveness of isokinetic exercise for knee osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Aug;86(8):1545-51. Link

Huang MH, Tsau JC, Ding HJ, Chai CY, Yang RC. The role of mucopolysaccharide induction in treatment of experimental osteoarthritis in rats by ultrasound. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 1997 Nov;13(11):661-70. Link

Huang MH, Ding HJ, Chai CY, Huang YF, Yang RC. Effects of sonication on articular cartilage in experimental osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 1997 Oct;24(10):1978-84. Link

Majlesi J. Unalan H. High-Power Pain Threshold Ultrasound Technique in the Treatment of Active Myofascial Trigger Points: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Case-Control Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:833-6. Link

For a comprehensive list of ultrasound studies visit www.electrotherapy.org



Please be very aware that this information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider before starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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